Bore hole can be used to collect the heat from the bedrock. Individual pit depth is typically less than 200 m with a diameter of 130-200 mm.
The COP is the definition of the ratio of the heating provided over the electrical energy consumed under particular circumstances. The annual COP provides a measure of the annual performance of the heat pumps on an annual basis. The COP depends on the operating temperatures and circumstances. The lower the temperature of the heating circuit, the better the COP. The Lämpöässä geothermal pumps and cooling devices have a very high COP.
The compressor is the heart of the heat pump operation. It compresses the refrigerant to a high pressure, thus heating it. The pressure depends on the temperature used for storing the heat in the hot water storage tank. The compressor requires the use of electricity, but the amount of heat obtained is multiple compared to the electricity consumption.
The condenser is the heat pump’s heat exchanger, where the refrigerant flowing inside the device is transformed from vapor to liquid, releasing the heat to the heating water storage tank.
With the control system, the geothermal energy system can be controlled in continuously changing circumstances.
The ÄssäCooling cooling system can be installed into the Lämpöässä heat collection circuit. The fluid in the circuit is circulated through the cooling fan, which releases cooling energy into the indoor air. The operation efficiency ratio of the ÄssäCooling system can be as high as 40 depending on the model, making it a very affordable and ecological cooling solution.
The ÄssäCooling cooling unit releases cooling energy into the indoor air. The cooling unit is installed either on the wall or ceiling.
The evaporator is the heat pump’s heat exchanger, where the refrigerant flowing inside the device absorbs heat from the ground or another heat source to the heat pump. After this, the ground circuit fluid heated in the ground cools down and releases heat to the refrigerant, which then evaporates.
The expansion valve is located inside the heat pump. In the expansion valve, the pressure of the liquid refrigerant is lowered so that it can absorb heat again in the evaporator.
The geothermal heat pump collects heating energy from the ground, a water system or a bore well. The heating energy from the sun is stored in the ground, and is then transferred to the fluid in the heat collection circuit and on to the geothermal heat pump.
The heat distribution circuit or heating circuit is the definition for the whole heating network of the building, which begins at the heating flow connection of the heat pump storage tank and ends at the return connection of the storage tank. The circuit is controlled by a regulator valve, motor and pump. After this, the heating circuit may be divided with e.g. a manifold into two circuits for floor heating and radiator network. The Lämpöässä products allow for the control of up to three separate heating circuits. The use of multiple circuits may be needed for instance when humid rooms want to be kept at a higher temperature than the rest of the rooms. During summer, only humid rooms can be heated.
The refrigerant vapor is steeply heated in the compressor, and the heat pump temperature is the highest after the compressor. The refrigerant is then referred to as ’hot gas’.
The Lämpöässä heat pumps are two-sectioned, i.e. they store the heat in two separate storage tanks. The water heated in the lower storage tank is circulated into the heat distribution circuit used for heating the property.
Passive cooling is based on circulating the cool fluid (which stays cool even during summer) in the ground circuit with a separate pump to the cooling fan without having to keep the geothermal heat pump on. Passive cooling is an affordable cooling solution, since the only fixed costs are associated with the water circulation pump operation. The costs of a passive cooling system are a fraction of the costs of for instance an air source heat pump. This is due to the fact that the air source heat pump mechanically cools the warm outside air, while a passive cooling system can be connected to the cooling fan or to a ventilation device.
The superheater is an additional heat exchanger of the heat pump for maximizing the efficiency of the device. The hot refrigerant in the compressor is much hotter than is needed for the heating of the building. This excess heat energy is utilized in the superheater.
The superheating technology used by Lämpöässä is an efficient way to utilize final heating of domestic water. The temperature of the domestic hot water (DHW) usually requires a higher temperature than the heating network of the building. With the superheat exchanger, the hottest energy is transferred to the upper storage tank, where the DHW is heated to the desired level. Thus, there is no need to heat the whole storage tank. A lower temperature in the lower storage tank translates as a higher COP and thus lesser use of electricity. Thanks to the superheating technology, no electric heating element is needed.
The temperature sensor measures the temperature, and the measurement data is most of the time transferred to the heat pump control system. The temperature sensors measure e.g. storage tank temperature levels. The outdoor sensor monitors the outside temperature. A room sensor can also be installed in the apartment for measuring the temperature of the apartment. The heat pump control requires a number of temperature data from various parts of the system.
The Lämpöässä heat pumps are two-sectioned, i.e. they store the heat in two separate storage tanks. The upper storage tank heats the domestic hot water. See “Superheating technology” for more information.